Library for Scientific Resources

Additional methods of brain repair, including cranial electrical stimulation, chiropractic, and acupuncture, have also been found effective:


 

 
  • Orio L, Alen F, Pavon FJ, et al. Oleoylethanolamide, Neuroinflammation, and Alcohol Abuse. Front Mol Neurosci. 2018;11:490.
  • Young, S PhD, “Behavioral effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors: Basic and Clinical aspects,” Neurosci Biobehav Review, 1996, summer;20(2):313-23
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  • Sarris J. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review. Phytother Res. 2018;32(7):1147-1162.
  • Hüfner K, Galffy M, Egeter J, et al. Acute and Chronic Mental Stress Both Influence Levels of Neurotransmitter Precursor Amino Acids and Derived Biogenic Amines. Brain sciences. 2020;10(6).
  • Long SJ, Benton D. Effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on stress, mild psychiatric symptoms, and mood in nonclinical samples: a meta-analysis. Psychosomatic medicine. 2013;75(2):144-153.
  • Pipingas A, Camfield DA, Stough C, et al. The effects of multivitamin supplementation on mood and general well-being in healthy young adults. A laboratory and at-home mobile phone assessment. Appetite. 2013;69:123-136.

Vitamins & Nutrients

  • Mikawa Y, Mizobuchi S, Egi M, Morita K. Low serum concentrations of vitamin B6 and iron are related to panic attack and hyperventilation attack. Acta Med Okayama. 2013;67(2):99-104.
  • Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy–A Review. Nutrients. 2016;8(2):68.
  • Moore K, Hughes CF, Hoey L, et al. B-vitamins in Relation to Depression in Older Adults Over 60 Years of Age: The Trinity Ulster Department of Agriculture (TUDA) Cohort Study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2019;20(5):551-557.e551.
  • Moore K, Hughes CF, Hoey L, et al. B-vitamins in Relation to Depression in Older Adults Over 60 Years of Age: The Trinity Ulster Department of Agriculture (TUDA) Cohort Study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2019;20(5):551-557.e551.
  • Lewis JE, Tiozzo E, Melillo AB, et al. The effect of methylated vitamin B complex on depressive and anxiety symptoms and quality of life in adults with depression. ISRN psychiatry. 2013;2013:621453.

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  • Hanus M, Lafon J, Mathieu M. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination containing two plant extracts (Crataegus oxyacantha and Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium in mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders. Current medical research and opinion. 2004;20(1):63-71.
  • Barbadoro P, Annino I, Ponzio E, et al. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57(6):1110-1114.

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  • Kałużna-Czaplińska J, Gątarek P, Chirumbolo S, Chartrand MS, Bjørklund G. How important is tryptophan in human health? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(1):72-88.
  • Fernstrom JD. A Perspective on the Safety of Supplemental Tryptophan Based on Its Metabolic Fates. J Nutr. 2016;146(12):2601s-2608s.
  • Kikuchi AM, Tanabe A, Iwahori Y. A systematic review of the effect of L-tryptophan supplementation on mood and emotional functioning. Journal of dietary supplements. 2020:1-18.
  • Shaw K, Turner J, Del Mar C. Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2002(1):Cd003198.
  • Schruers K, van Diest R, Overbeek T, Griez E. Acute L-5-hydroxytryptophan administration inhibits carbon dioxide-induced panic in panic disorder patients. Psychiatry research. 2002;113(3):237-243.
  • Kahn RS, Westenberg HG, Verhoeven WM, Gispen-de Wied CC, Kamerbeek WD. Effect of a serotonin precursor and uptake inhibitor in anxiety disorders; a double-blind comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan, clomipramine and placebo. International clinical psychopharmacology. 1987;2(1):33-45.
  • Kahn RS, Westenberg HG. L-5-hydroxytryptophan in the treatment of anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord. 1985;8(2):197-200.
  • Sarzi Puttini P, Caruso I. Primary fibromyalgia syndrome and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan: a 90-day open study. The Journal of international medical research. 1992;20(2):182-189.
  • Caruso I, Sarzi Puttini P, Cazzola M, Azzolini V. Double-blind study of 5-hydroxytryptophan versus placebo in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome. The Journal of international medical research. 1990;18(3):201-209.
  • Jacobsen JPR, Krystal AD, Krishnan KRR, Caron MG. Adjunctive 5-Hydroxytryptophan Slow-Release for Treatment-Resistant Depression: Clinical and Preclinical Rationale. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2016;37(11):933-944.
  • Benke D, Barberis A, Kopp S, et al. GABA A receptors as in vivo substrate for the anxiolytic action of valerenic acid, a major constituent of valerian root extracts. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56(1):174-181.
  • Prager EM, Bergstrom HC, Wynn GH, Braga MF. The basolateral amygdala γ-aminobutyric acidergic system in health and disease. Journal of neuroscience research. 2016;94(6):548-567.
  • Ngo DH, Vo TS. An Updated Review on Pharmaceutical Properties of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2019;24(15).
  • Abdou AM, Higashiguchi S, Horie K, Kim M, Hatta H, Yokogoshi H. Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration in humans. BioFactors (Oxford, England). 2006;26(3):201-208.
  • Yamatsu A, Yamashita Y, Pandharipande T, Maru I, Kim M. Effect of oral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration on sleep and its absorption in humans. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2016;25(2):547-551.
  • Kang HJ, Nam ES, Lee Y, Kim M. How Strong is the Evidence for the Anxiolytic Efficacy of Lavender?: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci). 2019;13(5):295-305.
  • Seifritz E, Schläfke S, Holsboer-Trachsler E. Beneficial effects of Silexan on sleep are mediated by its anxiolytic effect. Journal of psychiatric research. 2019;115:69-74.
  • Appel K, Rose T, Fiebich B, Kammler T, Hoffmann C, Weiss G. Modulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by
  • Passiflora incarnata L. Phytother Res. 2011;25(6):838-843.
    Aslanargun P, Cuvas O, Dikmen B, Aslan E, Yuksel MU. Passiflora incarnata Linneaus as an anxiolytic before spinal anesthesia. Journal of anesthesia. 2012;26(1):39-44.
  • Yoto A, Murao S, Motoki M, et al. Oral intake of γ-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks. Amino Acids. 2012;43(3):1331-1337.
  • Weeks BS. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15(11):Ra256-262.
  • Sharma A, Angulo-Bejarano PI, Madariaga-Navarrete A, et al. Multidisciplinary Investigations on Galphimia glauca: A Mexican Medicinal Plant with Pharmacological Potential. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2018;23(11).
  • Roy F. Baumeister & John Tierney, 2011 “The research on literature on glucose and self-control was reviewed and summarized by M.T. Gailliot and R.F Baumeister, The Physiology of Willpower: Linking Blood Glucose to Self-Control,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 11 (2007):303-27. That article contains original sources and summaries for many of the studies mentioned here. Additional experiments were reported in the Gaillot et al. (2007).
  • Abadi S, Papoushek C, Evans MF. Is kava extract effective for treating anxiety? Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien. 2001;47:1745-1747.
  • Pittler MH, Ernst E. Kava extract for treating anxiety. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2003(1):Cd003383.
  • Pittler MH, Ernst E. Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2000;20(1):84-89.
  • Witte S, Loew D, Gaus W. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of the acetonic kava-kava extract WS1490 in patients with non-psychotic anxiety disorders. Phytother Res. 2005;19(3):183-188.
  • Ooi SL, Henderson P, Pak SC. Kava for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Review of Current Evidence. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, NY). 2018;24(8):770-780.
  • Stevinson C, Huntley A, Ernst E. A systematic review of the safety of kava extract in the treatment of anxiety. Drug safety. 2002;25(4):251-261.
  • White CM. The Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Adverse Events Associated With Kava. J Clin Pharmacol. 2018;58(11):1396-1405.

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  • Malcolm BJ, Tallian K. Essential oil of lavender in anxiety disorders: Ready for prime time? The mental health clinician. 2017;7(4):147-155.
  • López V, Nielsen B, Solas M, Ramírez MJ, Jäger AK. Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil on Central Nervous System Targets. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:280.
  • Sayed AM, Morsy S, Tawfik GM, et al. The best route of administration of lavender for anxiety: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. General hospital psychiatry. 2020;64:33-40.
  • Shady K, Nair JM, Crannell C. Lavender Aromatherapy: Examining the Effects of Lavender Oil Patches on Patients in the Hematology-Oncology Setting. Clinical journal of oncology nursing. 2019;23(5):502-508.
  • Karan NB. Influence of lavender oil inhalation on vital signs and anxiety: A randomized clinical trial. Physiology & behavior. 2019;211:112676.
  • Donelli D, Antonelli M, Bellinazzi C, Gensini GF, Firenzuoli F. Effects of lavender on anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytomedicine. 2019;65:153099.
  • Roozbeh N, Ghazanfarpour M, Khadivzadeh T, Kargarfard L, Dizavandi FR, Shariati K. Effect of Lavender on Sleep, Sexual Desire, Vasomotor, Psychological and Physical Symptom among Menopausal and Elderly Women: A Systematic Review. Journal of menopausal medicine. 2019;25(2):88-93.
  • Bazrafshan MR, Jokar M, Shokrpour N, Delam H. The effect of lavender herbal tea on the anxiety and depression of the elderly: A randomized clinical trial. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2020;50:102393.
  • Yap WS, Dolzhenko AV, Jalal Z, Hadi MA, Khan TM. Efficacy and safety of lavender essential oil (Silexan) capsules among patients suffering from anxiety disorders: A network meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):18042.
  • Möller HJ, Volz HP, Dienel A, Schläfke S, Kasper S. Efficacy of Silexan in subthreshold anxiety: meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled trials. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. 2019;269(2):183-193.
  • Cases J, Ibarra A, Feuillère N, Roller M, Sukkar SG. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Med J Nutrition Metab. 2011;4(3):211-218.
  • Alijaniha F, Naseri M, Afsharypuor S, et al. Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2015;164:378-384.
  • Haybar H, Javid AZ, Haghighizadeh MH, Valizadeh E, Mohaghegh SM, Mohammadzadeh A. The effects of Melissa officinalis supplementation on depression, anxiety, stress, and sleep disorder in patients with chronic stable angina. Clinical nutrition ESPEN. 2018;26:47-52.
  • Heydari N, Dehghani M, Emamghoreishi M, Akbarzadeh M. Effect of Melissa officinalis capsule on the mental health of female adolescents with premenstrual syndrome: a clinical trial study. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2018;31(3).

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  • Smriga M, Torii K. L-Lysine acts like a partial serotonin receptor 4 antagonist and inhibits serotonin-mediated intestinal pathologies and anxiety in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100(26):15370-15375.
  • Smriga M, Ando T, Akutsu M, Furukawa Y, Miwa K, Morinaga Y. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans. Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan). 2007;28(2):85-90.
  • Smriga M, Torii K. Prolonged treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces stress-induced anxiety in an elevated plus maze. Nutritional neuroscience. 2003;6(2):125-128.
  • Srinongkote S, Smriga M, Nakagawa K, Toride Y. A diet fortified with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces plasma cortisol and blocks anxiogenic response to transportation in pigs. Nutritional neuroscience. 2003;6(5):283-289.
  • Smriga M, Ghosh S, Mouneimne Y, Pellett PL, Scrimshaw NS. Lysine fortification reduces anxiety and lessens stress in family members in economically weak communities in Northwest Syria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(22):8285-8288.
  • Jezova D, Makatsori A, Smriga M, Morinaga Y, Duncko R. Subchronic treatment with amino acid mixture of L-lysine and L-arginine modifies neuroendocrine activation during psychosocial stress in subjects with high trait anxiety. Nutritional neuroscience. 2005;8(3):155-160.
  • Dinan TG, Cryan JF. The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. Gastroenterology clinics of North America. 2017;46(1):77-89.
  • Liu RT, Walsh RFL, Sheehan AE. Prebiotics and probiotics for depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. 2019;102:13-23.
  • Ansari F, Pourjafar H, Tabrizi A, Homayouni A. The Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Mental Disorders: a Review on Depression, Anxiety, Alzheimer, and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2020.
    Smith KS, Greene MW, Babu JR, Frugé AD. Psychobiotics as treatment for anxiety, depression, and related symptoms: a systematic review. Nutritional neuroscience. 2019:1-15.
  • Vitellio P, Chira A, De Angelis M, Dumitrascu DL, Portincasa P. Probiotics in Psychosocial Stress and Anxiety. A Systematic Review. Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD. 2020;29(1):77-83.
  • Messaoudi M, Lalonde R, Violle N, et al. Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects. The British journal of nutrition. 2011;105(5):755-764.
  • Messaoudi M, Violle N, Bisson JF, Desor D, Javelot H, Rougeot C. Beneficial psychological effects of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in healthy human volunteers. Gut Microbes. 2011;2(4):256-261.
  • Gualtieri P, Marchetti M, Cioccoloni G, et al. Psychobiotics Regulate the Anxiety Symptoms in Carriers of Allele A of IL-1β Gene: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Mediators Inflamm. 2020;2020:2346126.
  • Chong HX, Yusoff NAA, Hor YY, et al. Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 alleviates stress and anxiety in adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Benef Microbes. 2019;10(4):355-373.
  • Tran N, Zhebrak M, Yacoub C, Pelletier J, Hawley D. The gut-brain relationship: Investigating the effect of multispecies probiotics on anxiety in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of healthy young adults. J Affect Disord. 2019;252:271-277.
  • Nishida K, Sawada D, Kuwano Y, Tanaka H, Rokutan K. Health Benefits of Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 Tablets in Young Adults Exposed to Chronic Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(8).

https://www.lifeextension.com/protocols/emotional-health/anxiety#

  • Dinan TG, Cryan JF. The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. Gastroenterology clinics of North America. 2017;46(1):77-89.
  • Liu RT, Walsh RFL, Sheehan AE. Prebiotics and probiotics for depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. 2019;102:13-23.
  • Ansari F, Pourjafar H, Tabrizi A, Homayouni A. The Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Mental Disorders: a Review on Depression, Anxiety, Alzheimer, and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology. 2020.
    Smith KS, Greene MW, Babu JR, Frugé AD. Psychobiotics as treatment for anxiety, depression, and related symptoms: a systematic review. Nutritional neuroscience. 2019:1-15.
  • Vitellio P, Chira A, De Angelis M, Dumitrascu DL, Portincasa P. Probiotics in Psychosocial Stress and Anxiety. A Systematic Review. Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD. 2020;29(1):77-83.
  • Messaoudi M, Lalonde R, Violle N, et al. Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects. The British journal of nutrition. 2011;105(5):755-764.
  • Messaoudi M, Violle N, Bisson JF, Desor D, Javelot H, Rougeot C. Beneficial psychological effects of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in healthy human volunteers. Gut Microbes. 2011;2(4):256-261.
  • Gualtieri P, Marchetti M, Cioccoloni G, et al. Psychobiotics Regulate the Anxiety Symptoms in Carriers of Allele A of IL-1β Gene: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Mediators Inflamm. 2020;2020:2346126.
    Chong HX, Yusoff NAA, Hor YY, et al. Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 alleviates stress and anxiety in adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Benef Microbes. 2019;10(4):355-373.
  • Tran N, Zhebrak M, Yacoub C, Pelletier J, Hawley D. The gut-brain relationship: Investigating the effect of multispecies probiotics on anxiety in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of healthy young adults. J Affect Disord. 2019;252:271-277.
  • Nishida K, Sawada D, Kuwano Y, Tanaka H, Rokutan K. Health Benefits of Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 Tablets in Young Adults Exposed to Chronic Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(8).

https://www.lifeextension.com/protocols/emotional-health/anxiety#

  • Comai S, Lopez-Canul M, De Gregorio D, et al. Melatonin MT(1) receptor as a novel target in neuropsychopharmacology: MT(1) ligands, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications, and perspectives. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society. 2019;144:343-356.
  • Comai S, Gobbi G. Unveiling the role of melatonin MT2 receptors in sleep, anxiety and other neuropsychiatric diseases: a novel target in psychopharmacology. Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. 2014;39(1):6-21.
  • Posadzki PP, Bajpai R, Kyaw BM, et al. Melatonin and health: an umbrella review of health outcomes and biological mechanisms of action. BMC Med. 2018;16(1):18.
  • Li T, Jiang S, Han M, et al. Exogenous melatonin as a treatment for secondary sleep disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. 2019;52:22-28.
  • Auld F, Maschauer EL, Morrison I, Skene DJ, Riha RL. Evidence for the efficacy of melatonin in the treatment of primary adult sleep disorders. Sleep medicine reviews. 2017;34:10-22.
  • Hansen MV, Halladin NL, Rosenberg J, Gögenur I, Møller AM. Melatonin for pre- and postoperative anxiety in adults. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2015;2015(4):Cd009861.
  • Back SE, McCauley JL, Korte KJ, et al. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2016;77(11):e1439-e1446.
    Braun TL, Patel V, DeBord LC, Rosen T. A review of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of grooming disorders. Int J Dermatol. 2019;58(4):502-510.
  • Couto JP, Moreira R. Oral N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review of the clinical evidence. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2018;86:245-254.
  • Fernandes BS, Dean OM, Dodd S, Malhi GS, Berk M. N-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2016;77(4):e457-466.
  • Su KP, Tseng PT, Lin PY, et al. Association of Use of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids With Changes in Severity of Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(5):e182327.
  • Green P, Hermesh H, Monselise A, Marom S, Presburger G, Weizman A. Red cell membrane omega-3 fatty acids are decreased in nondepressed patients with social anxiety disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2006;16(2):107-113.
  • Liu JJ, Galfalvy HC, Cooper TB, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in major depressive disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2013;74(7):732-738.
  • Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Andridge R, Malarkey WB, Glaser R. Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25(8):1725-1734.
  • Jahangard L, Sadeghi A, Ahmadpanah M, et al. Influence of adjuvant omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, sleep, and emotion regulation among outpatients with major depressive disorders – Results from a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of psychiatric research. 2018;107:48-56.
  • Sohrabi N, Kashanian M, Ghafoori SS, Malakouti SK. Evaluation of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: “a pilot trial”. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2013;21(3):141-146.
  • Higdon J. Oregon State University. Essential Fatty Acids. Linus Pauling Institute. https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/essential-fatty-acids. Published 2003. Updated May 2019. Accessed August 17, 2020.
  • Haberka M, Mizia-Stec K, Mizia M, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressive symptoms, anxiety and emotional state in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Pharmacological reports : PR. 2013;65(1):59-68.
  • Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease anxiety feelings in a population of substance abusers. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2006;26(6):661-665.
  • Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, Hibbeln JR. Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 2008;32(2):568-575.
  • Canella C, Bachmann C, Wolfensberger B, Witt CM. Patients’ experiences attributed to the use of Passiflora incarnata: A qualitative, phenomenological study. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2019;231:295-301.
  • Kim M, Lim HS, Lee HH, Kim TH. Role Identification of Passiflora Incarnata Linnaeus: A Mini Review. Journal of menopausal medicine. 2017;23(3):156-159.
  • Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H, Khani M. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001;26(5):363-367.
  • Dantas LP, de Oliveira-Ribeiro A, de Almeida-Souza LM, Groppo FC. Effects of passiflora incarnata and midazolam for control of anxiety in patients undergoing dental extraction. Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal. 2017;22(1):e95-e101.
  • Movafegh A, Alizadeh R, Hajimohamadi F, Esfehani F, Nejatfar M. Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2008;106(6):1728-1732.
  • Rokhtabnak F, Ghodraty MR, Kholdebarin A, et al. Comparing the Effect of Preoperative Administration of Melatonin and Passiflora incarnata on Postoperative Cognitive Disorders in Adult Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery. Anesthesiology and pain medicine. 2017;7(1):e41238.
  • Ngan A, Conduit R. A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality. Phytother Res. 2011;25(8):1153-1159.

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  • Marx W, Lane M, Rocks T, et al. Effect of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition reviews. 2019.
    Shafiee M, Arekhi S, Omranzadeh A, Sahebkar A. Saffron in the treatment of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders: Current evidence and potential mechanisms of action. J Affect Disord. 2018;227:330-337.
  • Kell G, Rao A, Beccaria G, Clayton P, Inarejos-García AM, Prodanov M. affron(®) a novel saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) improves mood in healthy adults over 4 weeks in a double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2017;33:58-64.
  • Pitsikas N. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2016;21(3):303.
  • Mazidi M, Shemshian M, Mousavi SH, et al. A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Journal of complementary & integrative medicine. 2016;13(2):195-199.
  • Milajerdi A, Jazayeri S, Shirzadi E, et al. The effects of alcoholic extract of saffron (Crocus satious L.) on mild to moderate comorbid depression-anxiety, sleep quality, and life satisfaction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2018;41:196-202.
  • Bangratz M, Ait Abdellah S, Berlin A, et al. A preliminary assessment of a combination of rhodiola and saffron in the management of mild-moderate depression. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018;14:1821-1829.
  • Lopresti AL, Drummond PD. Efficacy of curcumin, and a saffron/curcumin combination for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2017;207:188-196.
  • Ghajar A, Neishabouri SM, Velayati N, et al. Crocus sativus L. versus Citalopram in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder with Anxious Distress: A Double-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2017;50(4):152-160.
  • Nathan PJ, Lu K, Gray M, Oliver C. The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent. Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy. 2006;6(2):21-30.
  • Miodownik C, Maayan R, Ratner Y, et al. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol to sulfate of dehydroepiandrosterone molar ratio associated with clinical response to L-theanine as augmentation of antipsychotic therapy in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder patients. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2011;34(4):155-160.
  • Hidese S, Ogawa S, Ota M, et al. Effects of L-Theanine Administration on Stress-Related Symptoms and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2019;11(10).
  • Williams JL, Everett JM, D’Cunha NM, et al. The Effects of Green Tea Amino Acid L-Theanine Consumption on the Ability to Manage Stress and Anxiety Levels: a Systematic Review. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 2020;75(1):12-23.
  • Lardner AL. Neurobiological effects of the green tea constituent theanine and its potential role in the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Nutritional neuroscience. 2014;17(4):145-155.
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https://www.lifeextension.com/protocols/emotional-health/anxiety#

By Author 

Following are a very few of Blum’s studies, which date back to the 1960s.

  • DesMaisons, K., Biochemical restoration as an intervention for multiple offense drunk driving. PhD dissertation, The Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH, 1996
  • A county program for multiple offender drunk drivers in San Mateo County, California, focused on diet and nutrition and enjoyed dramatic success. Participants added a nutritional component to their prescribed court-ordered treatment. they were taught to increase their awareness of what they were eating. They added protein, eliminated sugars and learned to eat enough, on time.
  • The Biochemical Restoration Program (BRP) was developed by Kathleen DesMaisons, PhD, a pioneering addiction specialist who recognized that alcoholics have a unique neurochemical make up that makes them highly sensitive to emotional pain. They are drawn at an early age to the drug effects of sugar. This solution gets transferred to alcohol. Treating the base neurochemistry affects treatment outcome in a significant way.
  • The DesMaisons program was a collaboration of the Criminal Justice Council and the Peninsula Community Foundation in San Mateo County. The Peninsula Community Foundation funded the program from 1994 to 1997 for $280,000. The courts sentenced offenders to participate. Adding the nutritional component to the standard treatment generated a 92% success rate.
  •  After tracking 64 people who had been arrested more than once for drunken driving: 32 who took the 4-month program with a follow-up 3 months later; and 32 “controls” who were sentenced to conventional treatment. After the program was over the researchers discovered that members of the control group were charged again, and for far more serious offenses, at four times the rate of program graduates. Only two participants in the nutrition program violated probation, while 13 members of the control group committed 32 violations.
  • DesMaisons later moved from Northern California to Albuquerque, New Mexico, and developed an international web based support program for sugar sensitive people using these same nutritional protocols.

The Vitamin Cure for Alcoholism: Orthomolecular Treatment of Addictions

By Abram Hoffer, M.D., Ph.D. and Andrew W Saul

  • Gloria, L. M. Cravo, MIE. Camilo, et al a “Nutritional Deficiencies in Chronic Alcoholics: Relation to Dietary Intake and Alcohol Consumption.” Am J Gastroenterol 92:3 (March 1997): 485-489.
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  • Ostrovski S.I., and V.P. Grinevich. “Effect of Supplementary Vitamin Administration on Free Amino Acids in the Liver and Brain of Rats with Alcoholic Intoxication.”  Vopr Pitan 3 (May-June 1988) : 41-45.
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  • Replogle, W.H., and F.J. Eicke. “Megavitamin Therapy in the Reduction of Anxiety and Depression Among Alcoholics.” J Orthomolecular Med 4:4 (1989): 221-224.
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  • Gueguen, S., P. Pirollet, P. Leroy, et al. “Changes In Serum Retinol Alpha-tocopherol, Vitamin C, Carotenoids, Zinc and Selenium after Micronutrient Supplementation during Alcohol Rehabilitation.” J Am Coll Nutr 22:4 (August 2003): 303-310,
  • For further information on alcohol, depression, and anxiety, see:
  • Prousky, Jonathan. Anxiety: Orthomolecular Diagnosis and Treatment. Toronto, ON, Canada: CCNM Press, 2006, Challem, Jack, The Food-Mood Solution: All-Natural Ways to Banish Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Stress, Overeating, and Alcohol and Drug Problems- and Feel Good Again. New York: Wiley, 2008. 
  • Hoes, M.J.AJ.M., M.D. “Psychiatric Significance of the Plasma
  • Concentrations of Magnesium and Vitamin B1 in Alcoholism and
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  • Horrobin, D.F “A Biochemical Basis for Alcoholism and Alcohol-induced Damage Including the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cirrhosis: Interference with Essential Fatty Acid and Prostaglandin Metabolism.” Med Hypotheses 6:9 (September 1980): 929-942. Horrobin, D.F. “Essential Fatty Acids, Prostaglandins, and Alcoholism: An Overview.” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 11:1 (February 1987): 2-9. Wolkin, A., D. Segarnick, J. Sierkierski, et al. “Essential Fatty Acid Supplementation During Early Alcohol Abstinence.” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 11:1 (February 1987): 87-92.
  • Segarnick, D.J., D. Mandio Cordasco, V. Agura, et al. “Gamma Linolenic Acid Inhibits the Development of the Ethanol-induced Fatty Liver.” Prostaglandins Leukot Med 17:3 (March 1985): 277-282.
  • Rogers, L.L, R.B. Pelton, R.J. Williams. “Voluntary Alcohol Consumption by Rats Following Administration of Glutamine.” J Biol Chem 214:2 (June 1955): 503-506. Rogers, L.L., and R.B. Pelton. “Glutamine in the Treatment of Alcoholism: A Preliminary Report.”
  • Qtr J Stud Alcohol 18:4 (December 1957): 581-587.
  • Bobrova, N.P., V.G. Koval’chuk, O.V. Chumakova. “Effect of Chronic Alcohol Intoxication, Termination of Ethanol Administration, and Treatment of Abstinence with Glutamine and Riboflavin on Neuromediatory Systems of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid and Acetylcholine in the Rat Brain.” Vopr Med Khim 28:1 (January-February 1982): 103-106. Garbin, O., and V. Vartanian. “Habit or Addiction: Observations After Treatment of Alcoholics with L-glutamine.” Clin Ter 51:4 (November 1969): 367-371. Garbin, O., and V. Vartanian. “Treatment of Alcoholism with Parenteral Administration of L-glutamine.” Minerva Med 59:80 (October 1968): 4254-4261. Stolt, G. “Glutamine in the Treatment of Alcoholic Intoxication. A Double-blind Trial.” Nord Psykiatr Tidsskr 22:1 (1968): 39-43.
  • Ussher, M., A.K. Sampuran, R. Doshi, et al. “Acute Effect of a Brief Bout of Exercise on Alcohol Urges.” Addiction 99:12 (December 2004): 1542-1547. Ermalinski, R., P.G. Hanson, B. Lubin, et al “Impact of a Body-Mind Treatment Component on Alcoholic Inpatients.” Psychosoc Nurs Mental Health Serv 35:7 (July 1997): 39-45.
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  • Prousky, J.E. “Vitamin B3 for Nicotine Addiction.” J Orthomolecular Med 18 (2003): 56-57. By permission.
  • Cleary, J.P. “The NAD Deficiency Diseases.” J Orthomolecular Med 1:3 (1986): 149-157. Cleary, J.P. “Etiology and Biological Treatment of Alcohol Addiction.” J Orthomolecular Med 2:3 (1987): 166-168.
  • Cleary, J.P. “Etiology and Biological Treatment of Alcohol Addiction.” J Orthomolecular Med 2:3 (1987): 166-168.
  • Libby, Alfred F., and Irwin Stone. “The Hypoascorbemia-Kwashiorkor Approach to Drug Addiction Therapy: A Pilot Study.” J Orthomolecular Psych 6:4 (1977): 300-308.
  • Cathcart, R.F. “Vitamin C, Titration to Bowel Tolerance, Anascorbemia, and Acute Induced Scurvy.” Med Hypothesis 7 (1981): 1359-1376. Cathcart, R.F. “A Unique Function for Ascorbate.” Med Hypothesis 35 (May 1991): 32-37. Cathcart, R.F. “The Third Face of Vitamin C.” J Orthomolecular Med 7:4 (1993): 197-200.
  • Evangelou, A., V. Kalfakakou, P. Georgakas, et al. “Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Effects on Withdrawal Syndrome of Heroin Abusers.” In Vivo 14:2 (March-April 2000): 363-366.

  • Budd, K, “Use of D-phenylalanine, an Enkephalinase Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Intractable Pain,” Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, JJ Bonica et al Editors, NY Raven Press, 1983 5:305-08
  • Chen, TJ, Blum, K et al, Neurogenetics and clinical evidence for the putative activation of the brain reward circuitry by a neuroadaptagen: proposing an addiction candidate gene panel map; J Psychoactive Drugs, 2011, Apr-Jun; 43(2): 108-27.
  • Chen TJ, Blum K et al; Narcotic antagonists in drug dependence: pilot study showing enhancement of compliance with SYN-10, amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition therapy; Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(3):538-48
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  • Durstin, SM et al, “The ‘dalhousie serotonin cocktail’ for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder,” J. Psychopharmacol, June 2001;15(2):136-138
  • Evangelou, A., et al. Ascorbic Acid Effects on Withdrawal Syndrome of Heroin Abusers.” In Vivo. 14(2):363-366. March 2000.
  • Gaby, Alan R., MD, editor. “Nutritional Therapy In Medical Practice: A Reference Manual and Study Guide.” Alcoholism and Drug Addiction. (Section 25):253-255, 2001. (Lists 43 scientific studies of various nutritional substances used for addiction treatment.)
  • Gant, Charles E., Functional Medicine: The Missing Link in Addictionology.” Journal of Addictions Nursing. 12(3/4): 169-179, 2000.
  • Geidenberg, A., et al. “Tyrosine for the Treatment of Depression,” American Journal of Psychiatry, 1984, 137: 622-32
  • Gelenberg, A.J. and R.J. Wurtman,  “Tyrosine for Depression,” Lancet, October 1980
  • Grant L.P., et al; Nutrition education is positively associated with substance abuse treatment program outcomes.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 104(4):604-10, April 2004.
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  • Guenther, Ruth M, PhD. The Role of Nutritional Therapy in Alcoholism Treatment.” International Journal of Biosocial Research. 4(1)5-18, 1983
  • Maher, T.J., “Tyrosine, Catecholamines, and Brain Function,” The Nutrition Report, vol. 3, No. 6, June, 1990
  • Mathews-Larson, Joan PhD. “Alcoholism Treatment With Biochemical Restoration as a Major Component.” International Journal of Biosocial Research. 9(1):92-106, 1987
  • Poldinger, W, PhD, “A functional-dimensional approach to depression: Serotonin deficiency as a target syndrome in a comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and fluvoxamine,” Psychopathology, 1991;24:53-81
  • Reinstein, DK, H. Lehnert, and RJ Wurtman, “Neurochemical and Behavioral Consequences of Stress: Effects of Dietary Tyrosine,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 3(3), 1984
  • Rogers, LL, “Glutamine in the Treatment of Alcoholism” Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 18 No. 4 (1957); 581-87
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  • Van der Does, AJ, “The effects of tryptophan depletion on mood and psychiatric symtpoms,” J Affect Disorders, May 2001, 64(2-3):107-19
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