Library for Scientific Articles

  • Beasley, Joseph D., “Dietary intake of Certain Amino Acids Linked to Brain Function,” Clinial Psychiatry, 8:10 (1980), pp.1-20
  • Beasley, Joseph D., et al. “Follow-up of a Cohort of Alcoholic Patients Through Twelve Months of Comprehensive Biobehavioral Treatment.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 8:133-142, 1991.
  • Budd, K, “Use of D-phenylalanine, an Enkephalinase Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Intractable Pain,” Advances in Pain Research and Therapy, JJ Bonica et al Editors, NY Raven Press, 1983 5:305-08
  • Chen, TJ, Blum, K et al, Neurogenetics and clinical evidence for the putative activation of the brain reward circuitry by a neuroadaptagen: proposing an addiction candidate gene panel map; J Psychoactive Drugs, 2011, Apr-Jun; 43(2): 108-27.
  • Chen TJ, Blum K et al; Narcotic antagonists in drug dependence: pilot study showing enhancement of compliance with SYN-10, amino-acid precursors and enkephalinase inhibition therapy; Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(3):538-48
  • Coppen, A., et al, “Tryptophan Metabolism in Depressive Illness,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 4 (1974), pp. 164-73
  • Durstin, SM et al, “The ‘dalhousie serotonin cocktail’ for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder,” J. Psychopharmacol, June 2001;15(2):136-138
  • Evangelou, A., et al. Ascorbic Acid Effects on Withdrawal Syndrome of Heroin Abusers.” In Vivo. 14(2):363-366. March 2000.
  • Gaby, Alan R., MD, editor. “Nutritional Therapy In Medical Practice: A Reference Manual and Study Guide.” Alcoholism and Drug Addiction. (Section 25):253-255, 2001. (Lists 43 scientific studies of various nutritional substances used for addiction treatment.)
  • Gant, Charles E., Functional Medicine: The Missing Link in Addictionology.” Journal of Addictions Nursing. 12(3/4): 169-179, 2000.
  • Geidenberg, A., et al. “Tyrosine for the Treatment of Depression,” American Journal of Psychiatry, 1984, 137: 622-32
  • Gelenberg, A.J. and R.J. Wurtman,  “Tyrosine for Depression,” Lancet, October 1980
  • Grant L.P., et al; Nutrition education is positively associated with substance abuse treatment program outcomes.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 104(4):604-10, April 2004.
  • Growden, J.H., et al, “Treatment of Brain Diseases with Dietary Precursors of Neurotransmitters,” Annals of Internal Medicine, 80:10 (1980), pp. 1638-39
  • Guenther, Ruth M, PhD. The Role of Nutritional Therapy in Alcoholism Treatment.” International Journal of Biosocial Research. 4(1)5-18, 1983
  • Maher, T.J., “Tyrosine, Catecholamines, and Brain Function,” The Nutrition Report, vol. 3, No. 6, June, 1990
  • Mathews-Larson, Joan PhD. “Alcoholism Treatment With Biochemical Restoration as a Major Component.” International Journal of Biosocial Research. 9(1):92-106, 1987
  • Poldinger, W, PhD, “A functional-dimensional approach to depression: Serotonin deficiency as a target syndrome in a comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and fluvoxamine,” Psychopathology, 1991;24:53-81
  • Reinstein, DK, H. Lehnert, and RJ Wurtman, “Neurochemical and Behavioral Consequences of Stress: Effects of Dietary Tyrosine,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 3(3), 1984
  • Rogers, LL, “Glutamine in the Treatment of Alcoholism” Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 18 No. 4 (1957); 581-87
  • Satel, SL, et al, “Tryptophan Depletion: An Attenuation of Cue-Induced Cravings for Cocaine,” American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, No. 5 May 1995
  • Schoenthaler, Stephen J., “The Effect of Sugar on the Treatment and Control of Antisocial Behavior,” The International Journal for Biosocial Research, 1981, vol. 3, No. 1, PP 1-9
  • Schoenthaler, J. and Doraz, Water E., “Types of Offenses Which Can Be Reduced in an Institutional Setting Using Nutritional Intervention: A Preliminary Empirical Evaluation,” The International Journal for Biosocial Research, 1983, vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 74-84
  • Van der Does, AJ, “The effects of tryptophan depletion on mood and psychiatric symtpoms,” J Affect Disorders, May 2001, 64(2-3):107-19
  • Van Heile JJ, “L-5-hydroxytryptophan in depression: The first substitution therapy in psychiatry?” Neurobiology, 1980;6:230-40
  • Young, S PhD, “Behavioral effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors: Basic and Clinical aspects,” Neurosci Biobehav Review, 1996, summer;20(2):313-23
  • One of the early researchers in the genetic basis for all compulsive, addictive, impulsive behaviors is pharmacogeneticist Kenneth Blum, PhD, who did much of his seminal work at the University of Texas in San Antonio. When he moved from laboratory rodents to field research with people, he and his colleagues discovered malnourished brains with neurotransmitter deficiencies, and he began creating formulas of nutrients designed for opiate users, stimulant users, people craving comfort foods, and other unique populations defined by their neurotransmitter needs.

Following are a very few of Blum’s studies, which date back to the 1960s.

Kathleen DesMaisons, PhD

  • DesMaisons, K., Biochemical restoration as an intervention for multiple offense drunk driving. PhD dissertation, The Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH, 1996
  • A county program for multiple offender drunk drivers in San Mateo County, California, focused on diet and nutrition and enjoyed dramatic success. Participants added a nutritional component to their prescribed court-ordered treatment. they were taught to increase their awareness of what they were eating. They added protein, eliminated sugars and learned to eat enough, on time.
  • The Biochemical Restoration Program (BRP) was developed by Kathleen DesMaisons, PhD, a pioneering addiction specialist who recognized that alcoholics have a unique neurochemical make up that makes them highly sensitive to emotional pain. They are drawn at an early age to the drug effects of sugar. This solution gets transferred to alcohol. Treating the base neurochemistry affects treatment outcome in a significant way.
  • The DesMaisons program was a collaboration of the Criminal Justice Council and the Peninsula Community Foundation in San Mateo County. The Peninsula Community Foundation funded the program from 1994 to 1997 for $280,000. The courts sentenced offenders to participate. Adding the nutritional component to the standard treatment generated a 92% success rate.
  •  After tracking 64 people who had been arrested more than once for drunken driving: 32 who took the 4-month program with a follow-up 3 months later; and 32 “controls” who were sentenced to conventional treatment. After the program was over the researchers discovered that members of the control group were charged again, and for far more serious offenses, at four times the rate of program graduates. Only two participants in the nutrition program violated probation, while 13 members of the control group committed 32 violations.
  • DesMaisons later moved from Northern California to Albuquerque, New Mexico, and developed an international web based support program for sugar sensitive people using these same nutritional protocols.

Additional methods of brain repair, including cranial electrical stimulation, chiropractic, and acupuncture, have also been found effective:

  • Roy F. Baumeister & John Tierney, 2011 “The research on literature on glucose and self-control was reviewed and summarized by M.T. Gailliot and R.F Baumeister, The Physiology of Willpower: Linking Blood Glucose to Self-Control,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 11 (2007):303-27. That article contains original sources and summaries for many of the studies mentioned here. Additional experiments were reported in the Gaillot et al. (2007).